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Blending Science, Policy on Dams

by TJ Martinell
The Lens, September 12, 2018

"If you're a wheat producer in Whitman or Columbia County you're shipping by barge,
that is your option. There isn't a short line railroad for you to go to."

Little Goose Dam on the Lower Snake River dam. Proponents of breaching the four lower Snake River dams to aid the recovery of endangered salmon species know the move would ultimately require Congressional authorization and funding for that to happen. A Sept. 10 meeting of the U.S. Committee on Natural Resources in Central Washington prompted by U.S. lawmakers representing the state aimed to bolster support for preserving them.

Testimony at the meeting included industry and business representatives who touted the agricultural, transportation and environment benefits provided by the dams.

"I believe it's important that congress Is educated about how vital our federal river power system is to the Pacific Northwest," U.S. Rep. Dan Newhouse (R-WA-4) said. "It is my hope for this hearing today that a national audience will learn more about the myriad of benefits that our river system provides. These rivers truly are the economic lifeblood of the Pacific Northwest."

Earlier this year a U.S. District judge ordered the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to conduct additional water spillage over the four dams to improve salmon survival rates. The move is expected to cost ratepayers roughly $38 million annually. The ruling also overrode spillage levels recommended by NOAA and the spill levels outlined in the 2014 biological opinion governing Chinook salmon recovery.

The court order inspired U.S. Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA-5) to introduce a House resolution to protect those dams from breaching until 2022. The resolution passed in April on a 225-189 vote, and has now been referred to the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works.

However, an ongoing federal court injunction requires that breaching the dams be considered under a new environmental impact statement (EIS) analysis for the 2014 biological opinion due in 2021.

Removing the dams could also be included as part of recommendations made by the state Southern Resident Killer Whale Recovery Task Force created by Governor Jay Inslee. The task force had its most recent meeting Sept. 11.

Studies indicate that Snake River Chinook salmon make up a small portion of Chinook consumed by these killer whales.

Also, structural improvements to the dams have significantly improved juvenile fish survival rates in recent years, making them equal to survival rates in the 1960s when there were only four dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers.

Referencing the recent death of an infant killer whale, McMorris Rodgers said at the Sept. 10 meeting that "the four lower Snake River dams didn't cause the whale to die. Let's focus on what is actually going to get results."

One way advocated by some is to increase salmon hatchery production, which has increased in recent years while wild salmon numbers have dwindled. A 2012 study by the Nez Perce Tribe's Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement (JCAPE) Project found that "fish chosen for hatchery rearing did not have a detectable negative impact on the fitness of wild fish" and "can successfully boost population size with minimal impacts on the fitness of salmon in the wild."

Those in favor of preserving the dams also point to the carbon-free and consistent power they provide, roughly eight percent of the total electricity produced in Washington.

Dan James in the deputy administrator for the Bonneville Power Administration, which with other federal agencies manages the dams. He told panel members that unlike other forms of energy, "the hydro system is capable, and is in fact is planned for meeting sustained periods of high demand."

Although some have argued that the electricity lost by breaching the dams could be replaced by other clean power sources, James said the technology doesn't yet exist to store it long-term. Because of that, the hydropower would most likely be substituted with natural gas.

"The system has to operate all the time, and the system always needs to balance," he said. "How do you meet the needs at any given time during the hottest day of the year (and) the coldest day of the year?"

The Snake River dams also enable wheat producers to transport their product to market through river barges and handles 40 percent of the country's wheat.

"The dams are a critical component for trade," Association of Washington Business President Kris Johnson told panel members. "They serve our growers, our seaports, moving Washington products to market with a limited carbon footprint."

Those barges are also the only choice for some farmers, says Shaver Transportation Vice President of Marine Services Rob Rich.

"If you're a wheat producer in Whitman County, if you're a wheat producer in Columbia County, you're shipping by barge, that is your option," he said. "There isn't a short line railroad for you to go to."

TJ Martinell
Blending Science, Policy on Dams
The Lens, September 12, 2018

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