a public library for anyone interested in the plight of Idaho's wild Salmon & Steelhead
 Mathematics Useful Conversion Factors: 640 acres = 1 square mile, 1 mile = 5280 feet = 1760 yards, 1 cfs = 1 cubic foot of fluid moving past in one second, 1 acre-foot = the volume covering an acre one foot deep. Funding of Habitat Restoration: After reading USFWS Distributes \$5 Million in Grants for Habitat Work by the Columbia Basin Bulletin, answer the following: Of the "\$34.8 million in grants to states under the LIP program" what percent is going to the Northwest States of Idaho, Montana, Oregon & Washington? Of the \$5 million in grants to the Northwest states what percentage is going to Idaho? Which Northwest state is receiving the most grant money under the LIP program? Irrigation: Using the tables of information in Irrigation from 4 Lower Snake River Dams and The Four Lower Snake River Dams, answer the following: Determine the acreage of farmland irrigated by the four Lower Snake Reservoirs. Assuming a typical annual use of 3 feet depth of irrigation water, how many acre-feet of water is irrigated annually? Evaporation: According to a 1968 survey of Idaho Water Inventory produced by the University of Idaho, lakes in the vicinity of the Lower Snake Reservoirs lose approximately 36 inches of water to evaporation each year. From the table of information on the Lower Snake River Dams calculate the surface area of the four reservoirs behind these dams (in acres). Calculate the volume of water lost to evaporation by multiplying 36 inches to the surface area of the reservoirs. Convert this to acre-feet and compare with the volume of water irrigated annually by the Lower Snake Reservoirs. Compare the irrigated acreage with the surface area of the four Lower Snake Reservoirs. Flow Augmentation: The 2000 Biological Opinion calls for the annual purchase of 427,000 acre-feet of water from "willing sellers" to improve the flow conditions for salmon migrating through the hydrosystem corridor. 427,000 acre-feet of "flow augmentation" is equivalent to how many billion cubic feet of water? If water was spilled at the maximum spillway design capacity through Lower Granite Dam, how many hours would it take to spill 427,000 acre-feet? How many hours would it take to pass 427,000 acre-feet through the Lower Granite Power House at its maximum hydraulic capacity? Answer the next three study questions as a ratio and as a percentage. What proportion of 427,000 acre-feet is removed from the reservoirs by irrigation? What proportion of 427,000 acre-feet is removed from the reservoirs by evaporation? Compare 427,000 acre-feet of "flow augmentation" to the total storage capacity of Lower Granite Lake. Energy Conservation: San Jose Mercury News, State's Natural Gas Reliance a Risk, Report Says by Paul Rogers - July 17, 2002 Since last year, California has been building generating plants at a record pace. By the end of this month, the state will have brought 17 large projects online since May 2001, producing 4,623 megawatts of electricity, enough for 3.4 million homes. All are natural gas-fired. During that same time, just 240 megawatts of renewable power, mostly biomass energy from burning forest debris and landfill methane, have come on line. Another 1,200 megawatts of permanent efficiency have been secured since last summer through such programs as installing more energy-efficient traffic lights, "cool roofs,'' and new farm pumps, said Claudia Chandler, a spokeswoman for the California Energy Commission. From the news excerpt above and the knowledge that the Lower Snake River dams produce 1200 megawatts on an average water year: Calculate the ratio of Lower Snake River hydropower to the permanent efficiency secured in California between May 2001 and July 2002. The beginning of May 2001 through July 2002 amounts to how many months? Calculate the ratio of Lower Snake River hydropower to the renewable power installed in California between May 2001 and July 2002. Calculate the ratio of Lower Snake River hydropower to the natural gas-fired generating power installed in California between May 2001 and July 2002.

 each effect is itself a cause